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Denebola » John-Henry Mcbreen http://www.denebolaonline.net The Award-Winning, Official School Newspaper of Newton South High School, Newton, MA Fri, 17 Jun 2011 02:00:19 +0000 en hourly 1 http://wordpress.org/?v=3.0.2 Southern Sudan wins independence http://www.denebolaonline.net/2011/04/15/southern-sudan-wins-independence/ http://www.denebolaonline.net/2011/04/15/southern-sudan-wins-independence/#comments Fri, 15 Apr 2011 05:34:21 +0000 John-Henry Mcbreen http://www.denebolaonline.net/?p=5819 On July 9, 2011, a new country will join the international community. On that date, South Sudan will secede from Sudan, formerly Africa’s largest nation. According to the January 30 referendum in which 99 percent of the South Sudanese population voted for independence.
The vote was agreed upon in 2005 as part of a peace deal to end the Second Sudanese Civil War, which had raged since 1983.
During those 22 years, about two million Sudanese, mostly civilians, were killed. The war, largely a continuation of the First Sudanese Civil War, which lasted from 1955 to 1972, was caused, like most wars, by a variety of factors, including race and religion.
The North is populated by Muslim Arabs the South by Christian and Animist Africans.
The Northern-dominated central government, in attempting to extend its authority over the whole of its territory, alienated Southerners who had previously governed their own region when under British rule.
The single largest cause may be the exploitative nature and intentions of the government.
During the war, the North systematically cut off the South’s food supply and provided pro-North militias with weapons and ammunition.
More than 80 percent of Southerners were displaced by the fighting at some point in the 20-year period, many of whom fled to neighboring countries.
“It’s a very deliberate strategy on the part of the government of Sudan to depopulate large parts of southern Sudan,” Jeff Drumtra, a senior policy analyst with the United States Committee for Refugees, said.
Peace talks between the central government and the southern Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) made substantial progress beginning in 2003, and ultimately produced an agreement in 2005 that created an autonomous South Sudan that would hold an independence referendum in six years.
Until then, many South Sudanese government positions would remain held by Northerners, and oil revenues would be split between the government and the SPLA.
Though the split will probably produce peace, and certainly enjoys the popular support of the South, the economies of the newly separate nations may not be as stable as they were together.
The South is greatly underdeveloped. 11.2 percent of children die by the age of five, 40 percent of the population does not have access to clean water, 70 percent do not have access to adequate sanitation, and there is a huge lack of infrastructure.
The abundance of oil in South Sudan presents it with an enormous economic opportunity, but the collection and transportation presents an equally enormous challenge.
Acquiring efficient drilling machines is a challenge on its own, but especially complicated is the issue of an oil pipeline running through Sudan.
Cooperation with the Sudanese government will be required to use this pipeline, and although the president, Omar Hassan Al-Bashir, says he plans to cooperate, it could present problems in the future.
While the North has technology superior to the South, and the institutions necessary to run a country efficiently, the loss of South Sudanese oil will seriously harm its economy. 70 percent of Sudanese export earnings come from the sale of oil, and most of that oil is in the South.
However, if the government focuses more on to drilling for oil in North Sudan, which it must now do, it could probably pump more than the South because of the superior oil technology it possesses.
The Sudanese split may also benefit other countries as well. Currently, as gas prices rise around the world due to uprisings in the oil-rich Middle East, an influx of crude oil could dramatically decrease economic stress on gas-hungry countries like the U.S.
The combination of the North mining for more oil due to the loss of its Southern sources and the South mining for more oil to support its economy will increase the amount of oil in the market, and therefore lessen the cost per barrel, and per gallon.
Regardless of oil, the real issue in Sudan is peace. For a country locked in a civil war for the past 20 years, actual peace would be a welcome change, especially for the South in which most of the war was fought.
The country will be called the Republic of South Sudan “out of familiarity and convenience,” according to an independence commission.
However, other proposals, intended to convey a greater sense of independence, included Azania, the Nile Republic, the Kush Republic, and Juwama, an acronym for the nation’s three largest cities.
Although hopes are high for permanent peace within Sudan, the last peace agreement to end Sudan’s First Civil War only lasted 11 years.
However, this time the two countries are truly separate. Unless the split results in unviable economies, it will probably result in a lasting peace.

By John-Henry McBreenOn July 9, 2011, a new country will join the international community. On that date, South Sudan will secede from Sudan, formerly Africa’s largest nation. According to the January 30 referendum in which 99 percent of the South Sudanese population voted for independence. The vote was agreed upon in 2005 as part of a peace deal to end the Second Sudanese Civil War, which had raged since 1983.During those 22 years, about two million Sudanese, mostly civilians, were killed. The war, largely a continuation of the First Sudanese Civil War, which lasted from 1955 to 1972, was caused, like most wars, by a variety of factors, including race and religion.The North is populated by Muslim Arabs the South by Christian and Animist Africans. The Northern-dominated central government, in attempting to extend its authority over the whole of its territory, alienated Southerners who had previously governed their own region when under British rule. The single largest cause may be the exploitative nature and intentions of the government. During the war, the North systematically cut off the South’s food supply and provided pro-North militias with weapons and ammunition. More than 80 percent of Southerners were displaced by the fighting at some point in the 20-year period, many of whom fled to neighboring countries. “It’s a very deliberate strategy on the part of the government of Sudan to depopulate large parts of southern Sudan,” Jeff Drumtra, a senior policy analyst with the United States Committee for Refugees, said.Peace talks between the central government and the southern Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) made substantial progress beginning in 2003, and ultimately produced an agreement in 2005 that created an autonomous South Sudan that would hold an independence referendum in six years. Until then, many South Sudanese government positions would remain held by Northerners, and oil revenues would be split between the government and the SPLA.Though the split will probably produce peace, and certainly enjoys the popular support of the South, the economies of the newly separate nations may not be as stable as they were together. The South is greatly underdeveloped. 11.2 percent of children die by the age of five, 40 percent of the population does not have access to clean water, 70 percent do not have access to adequate sanitation, and there is a huge lack of infrastructure. The abundance of oil in South Sudan presents it with an enormous economic opportunity, but the collection and transportation presents an equally enormous challenge. Acquiring efficient drilling machines is a challenge on its own, but especially complicated is the issue of an oil pipeline running through Sudan. Cooperation with the Sudanese government will be required to use this pipeline, and although the president, Omar Hassan Al-Bashir, says he plans to cooperate, it could present problems in the future.While the North has technology superior to the South, and the institutions necessary to run a country efficiently, the loss of South Sudanese oil will seriously harm its economy. 70 percent of Sudanese export earnings come from the sale of oil, and most of that oil is in the South. However, if the government focuses more on to drilling for oil in North Sudan, which it must now do, it could probably pump more than the South because of the superior oil technology it possesses.The Sudanese split may also benefit other countries as well. Currently, as gas prices rise around the world due to uprisings in the oil-rich Middle East, an influx of crude oil could dramatically decrease economic stress on gas-hungry countries like the U.S. The combination of the North mining for more oil due to the loss of its Southern sources and the South mining for more oil to support its economy will increase the amount of oil in the market, and therefore lessen the cost per barrel, and per gallon.Regardless of oil, the real issue in Sudan is peace. For a country locked in a civil war for the past 20 years, actual peace would be a welcome change, especially for the South in which most of the war was fought. The country will be called the Republic of South Sudan “out of familiarity and convenience,” according to an independence commission. However, other proposals, intended to convey a greater sense of independence, included Azania, the Nile Republic, the Kush Republic, and Juwama, an acronym for the nation’s three largest cities.Although hopes are high for permanent peace within Sudan, the last peace agreement to end Sudan’s First Civil War only lasted 11 years. However, this time the two countries are truly separate. Unless the split results in unviable economies, it will probably result in a lasting peace.

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